What is nursing role in the prevention of chronic renal diseases?

Renal disease or chronic renal disease stages start with the first two stages which are characterised by little or no physical symptoms and hence may not be detected easily. In the first two stages of chronic renal disease if one undergoes a blood test then the blood report will definitely show certain abnormalities in the form of high reading of the serum creatinine. An analysis of the urine during the first two chronic renal disease stages will also reveal the presence of high amount of protein in the urine which may suggest a kidney disease and thereby trigger further tests. The third and fourth stages of renal disease may still involve the person not showing many physical symptoms. However some people are known to experience back pain, change in the appetite or ones eating pattern and may also feel overly tired or fatigued all the time. In some cases, people in the third and fourth stages of renal disease one may also notice a slight swelling or puffiness in the ankles or the feet or even their hands, however typically this puffiness is first noticed around the persons eyes.

Renal disease treatment at this stage includes a change in ones diet which may require the individual to follow a renal disease diet. The renal disease diet would involve a reduction in the consumption of foods that have a high count of potassium, protein, sodium, phosphorus or even calorie rich foods. The doctor may also prescribe certain medication as part of the renal disease treatment which may include medication for high blood pressure and other such drugs or even supplements. In the final or end stages of renal disease one may suffer from constant headaches, easy bleeding or bruising, weakness, thirst, diarrhea, muscle twitching or muscle cramps and so on.

The renal disease treatment at the final stages of renal disease either involves a kidney transplant or a dialysis which will vary from case to case. In most cases, kidney disease is known to affect both kidneys of the individual. There are three main types of renal diseases and these can be classified as hereditary disorders, acquired kidney disease and congenital disease. Hereditary kidney disease can be easily transmitted to both females and males with the most commonly observed one being polycystic kidney disease. In the case of hereditary kidney disease the clinical symptoms are produced right from ones teenage years up to adulthood. On the other hand congenital kidney disease mostly involves the malformation of the genitourinary tract which then leads to a kind of obstruction that result in the destruction or the infection of the kidney tissue. Prolonged destruction of the kidney tissue may gradually lead to chronic kidney failure if not attended to early on itself. Finally, there are plenty of acquired kidney diseases which are basically characterized by the inflammation of the kidney.

Another one of the common type of kidney disease are kidney stones which can occur without any warning or can be an inherited disorder or may also be due to an infection or malfunction in the kidney. There are also certain other medical conditions that may lead to renal disease such as hypertension or high blood pressure, diabetes and the prolonged use of certain medications. Renal disease in children may be acute or chronic. Acute renal diseases in children are those that last only for a short period of time and usually go away once the underlying case of the disease is identified and treated. Acute renal diseases in children could be a result of poisoning or because of some injury. Usually, in case of children if an injury results in a huge amount of blood loss then the kidneys may not function normally.

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