Down syndrome, also known as Trisomy 21, is a genetic condition with which a child is born. It is a condition that delays mental and physical development of the child owing to extra genetic material. It is a chromosomal abnormality in the 21st chromosome. It is characterized by the presence of an extra copy of the 21st chromosome either whole or in part. The effects of this condition vary among those affected by it and so it becomes difficult to generalize. Nevertheless, certain criteria remain the same for all individuals with Down syndrome.
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- Melissa A. Davidson, Primary Care for Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome, Pediatric Clinics of North America, Volume 55, Issue 5, October 2008, Pages 1099-1111, ISSN 0031-3955, 10.1016/j.pcl.2008.07.001.
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- D.J. Fidler, Down Syndrome, In: Editors-in-Chief: Marshall M. Haith and Janette B. Benson, Editor(s)-in-Chief, Encyclopedia of Infant and Early Childhood Development, Academic Press, San Diego, 2008, Pages 422-429, ISBN 9780123708779, 10.1016/B978-012370877-9.00053-0