DNA Testing

by Sam Malone

Genetic fingerprinting, also termed as DNA testing, DNA typing, and DNA profiling are evaluation techniques used to differentiate between individuals of the similar species. This procedure makes use of their DNA samples. DNA is a long, but slender object, similar to a string. A one foot long DNA strand is crammed into a legroom equal to a cube 1/millionth of an inch. All living creatures, namely bacteria, plants, bacteria and human beings depend upon DNA. It is an important factor that monitors the hereditary transfer of information, such as, stature, color of the hair and eyes, bone density and so on.

Due to the advancement in science and technology, DNA testing kits are available commercially, which can be purchased either online or at the physician’s clinic. It also indirectly favors better lifestyle and diet preferences. DNA testing is done for many personal & legal issues including Custody, Citizenship/Immigration, Child support, Inheritance, Crime Scene Analysis (Forensic Work) and Adoption.

Matching suspects or criminals to the hair, blood, semen or saliva sample is the greatest benefit in forensic science. It plays a vital role in harmonizing organ donors, doubts due to paternal problems detecting or evaluating the food constituents and researching wild population. Paternal history is detected based on the Y-chromosomes of the family, which is hereditary. Scraping a part of the cheek in a painless manner is an easy way for a home dna testing. The sample is the sent to a genetic laboratory for diagnosis. Maternal ancestry is detected using the mitochondrial DNA, as it is transferred without a change.

Two main types of forensic DNA testing, called, RFLP and PCR based testing are done. RFLP - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism involves the usage of a restriction enzyme, which recognizes a particular short sequence such as AATT that occurs in a repetitive manner in a cell's DNA at the crime spot. The most commonly used enzyme is the Hae III. They are stored by an equipment termed gel, that separates the DNA pieces based on size. The blot is made to react with a piece of DNA named probe, which is a DNA piece that holds to the DNA on the blot. The test is repeated in various individuals, based on the same probe and enzyme.

PCR - Polymerase chain reaction copies DNA in an efficient manner. In a span of 3 hours, an entry of DNA can be converted into millions of DNA molecules. It is similar to a Xerox machine in copying. Genealogical DNA testing has become common, due to the cost effective procedure. The accuracy of dna paternity testing is 100 per cent, and the procedure is conclusive, safe and scientific.

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