Prerenal Acute Renal Failure

by Rachel Bhan

The case of Prerenal Acute Renal Failure, or Prerenal ARF, is distinguished by an insufficient circulation of blood, or perfusion, to the kidneys, which makes them unable to clean the blood in a proper way. Many patients with this condition are seriously ill and experience shock that denotes from a very low blood pressure. Also, there can also be inadequate perfusion with the orgasm, which can lead to the case of multiple organ failure.


Hear failure, severe blood loss, dehydration and sepsis, or severe infection, are some of the most common causes of Prerenal Acute Renal Failure.

The case of Prerenal ARF is related to a number of preexisting medical problems, like the atherosclerosis (the ‘hardening’ of fatty deposit-filled arteries), the decreases the flow of the blood. Dehydration caused by a drastic reduces fluid ingestion or abusive use of diuretics, or water pills, is a major suspect of Prerenal ARF. A lot of people with serious heart conditions are provided with diuretics for them to be dehydrated and to prevent any fluid buildup in the lungs, and they actually often have decreased blood flow, or underperfusion, to the kidneys.

Signs and Symptoms

The following are the signs and symptoms of Prerenal Acute Renal Failure:

  • Dryness of mouth
  • Dizziness
  • Loss of weight
  • Slack skin
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Constant thirst
  • Low blood pressure

People with Prerenal ARF also have low urine output as well as those who have indications of heart or liver diseases.


The goal of treatment is to improve of kidney perfusion (blood circulation). This usually involves treating the underlying condition (e.g., infection, heart failure, liver failure). Intravenous (IV) fluids are administered to most patients to treat dehydration.

The treatment of Prerenal Acute Renal Failure is to improve the perfusion of the kidney, or blood circulation. This usually includes the treatment of underlying problems such as heart or liver failure and infection. The use of Intravenous fluids, or IV fluids, is given out to patients to deal with dehydration.

The treatment of Prerenal Acute Renal Failure is then carried out by the physician, who needs to conduct a comprehensive physical examination and determine the medical history of the patient. Laboratory studies to determine the abnormality in urine chemistry are also performed. The patient must also rule out any Postrenal or intrinsic cause to the renal condition. In treating Prerenal ARF, the attending physician would seek to improve the circulation of blood to the kidneys. This would usually require him to treat the underlying cause of the ARF condition such as sepsis, heart or liver failure. Administration of intravenous (IV) fluids can help alleviate dehydration in order to improve dramatically the patient’s condition. With the increase of urine output, renal function can improve.

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